We are dependent on Purdue for the successful development of therapeutic candidates in our collaboration arrangement with Purdue.
On December 2, 2016, we entered into a research collaboration, option and license agreement with Purdue. As part of the agreement, Purdue has the option to obtain from us the full worldwide development and commercial rights to AST-005, an option to obtain three additional collaboration targets and a further option to obtain from us the full worldwide development and commercial rights to any therapeutic candidates developed targeting the three additional collaboration targets. Additionally, Purdue has rights of first offer to some potential collaboration targets. These rights of first offer are subject to limitations in time and scope. In connection with the Purdue Collaboration, we received a non-refundable development fee of $10.0 million. In addition, we are eligible to receive up to $776.5 million upon successful completion of certain research, regulatory and commercial sales milestones. There can be no assurance these milestones will be achieved as they are subject to highly significant risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control. In the event a therapeutic candidate subject to the collaboration results in commercial sales, we are eligible to receive royalties ranging from the low single digits to a maximum of 10% on future net sales of such commercialized therapeutic candidates.
The success of our collaboration programs with Purdue depends largely upon the efforts of Purdue. Purdue has sole discretion in determining and directing the efforts and resources, including the ability to discontinue all efforts and resources, it applies to the development and, if approval is obtained, commercialization and marketing of the therapeutic candidates covered by the collaboration. Purdue may not be effective in obtaining approvals for the therapeutic candidates developed under the collaboration arrangement or marketing or arranging for necessary supply, manufacturing or distribution relationships for any approved products. Purdue may change its strategic focus or pursue alternative technologies in a manner that results in reduced, delayed or no revenue to us. Purdue has a variety of marketed products, and its own corporate objectives may not be consistent with our best interests. If Purdue fails to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or ultimately commercialize any therapeutic candidate under our collaboration or if Purdue terminates our collaboration, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any dispute or litigation proceedings we may have with Purdue in the future could delay development programs, create uncertainty as to ownership of intellectual property rights, distract management from other business activities and generate substantial expense.
If third parties on which we depend to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials do not perform as contractually required, fail to satisfy regulatory or legal requirements, or miss expected deadlines, our development program could be delayed with materially adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We rely on third party clinical investigators, contract research organizations, or CROs, clinical data management organizations and consultants to design, conduct, supervise and monitor preclinical studies and clinical trials for our therapeutic candidates. Because we rely on third parties and do not have the ability to conduct preclinical studies or clinical trials independently, we have less control over the timing, quality and other aspects of preclinical studies and clinical trials than we would if we conducted them on our own. These investigators, CROs and consultants are not our employees and we have limited control over the amount of time and resources that they dedicate to our programs. These third parties may have contractual relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors, which may draw time and resources away from our programs. The third parties with which we contract might not be diligent, careful or timely in conducting our preclinical studies or clinical trials, resulting in the preclinical studies or clinical trials being delayed or unsuccessful.
If we cannot contract with acceptable third parties on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or if these third parties do not carry out their contractual duties, satisfy legal and regulatory requirements for the conduct of preclinical studies or clinical trials or meet expected deadlines, our clinical development programs could be delayed and otherwise adversely affected. In all events, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our preclinical studies and clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. The FDA requires preclinical studies to be conducted in accordance with applicable Good Laboratory Practices, or GLPs, and clinical trials to be conducted in accordance with applicable FDA regulations and Good Clinical Practices, or GCPs, including requirements for conducting, recording and reporting the results of preclinical studies and clinical